Body length: 14-16 cm
Body mass: 25-30 g
Male: brown, black-streaked back, with grey undersides. Crown also grey , though eystripe brown and bib black.
Female: brownish, dark-streaked back, plus grey undersides and grey-brown cap.
Cosmopolitan species renowned for its ability to live alongside people, including in towns and cities; but recently in rather sharp decline, if still widespread overall. Reasons for disappearance seem to be lack of nest-sites and food, as well as predation (mainly by cats). Nests in building crevices, eaves and nestboxes. In villages also within stork nests or those of house martins. Spherical, feather-lined nests are of straw, grass, pieces of material, string and paper. Birds are monogamous, and some pairs may even have 3 broods annually. Feeds on seeds and insects. Superficially similar to tree sparrow, though habitat, call and plumage all differ. Resident and mainly sedentary.
Descriptions drawing on content of Ptaki Polski (“Birds of Poland”) - a book authored by Andrzej G. Kruszewicz, and published by MULTICO Oficyna Wydawnicza Sp. z o.o.