Fern family (Woodsiaceae)
Multiannual fern with short, thick rhizome. Leaves of length 50-100 cm, delicate, rosette-like, compound, 2- or 3-pinnate. 3rd-order branching sections have distinct indentations that are toothed on margins, directly obliquely upwards. Leaf-stalk with dark brown scales. Sori (spore-cases) elongated, producing spores in Jul.-Sep. This fern grows on mesic to moist, moderately fertile or fertile soils. Occurs in many different forest communities: in spruce or mixed oak-spruce forest, in fertile broadleaved and oak-lime-hornbeam forest, and in riparian or alder forests. A medicinal plant.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski.