Lily-of-the-valley family (Convallariaceae)
Perennial. From underground rhizomes there grow flower stems of heights to 20 cm, most often with 1-2 short-stalked leaves. Leaves cordate -ovate, pointed, of 8 x 5 cm. Apical inflorescence cylindrical, 2-4 cm long. Flowers white, scented, with four oval tepals 3 mm long. Fruit is black POISONOUS berry 5 mm in diameter. Flowers May-Jun.
Grows on mesic, moderately-fertile soils, of somewhat acid reaction. Shade-tolerant inhabitant of mixed/coniferous, spruce, oak, oak-lime-hornbeam, riparian and alder forests. Plant POISONOUS.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski