Fern family (Dryopteridaceae)
Longlived fern with short rhizome, from which arises rosette of leaves 20–60 cm long. Leaf stalk with numerous pale-brown scales. Leaf blade elongate and triangular, 2-3-pinnate. Lower sections of first-order leaf-parts asymmetrical. Last-order sections ovate, toothed on margins. Sori kidney-shaped (reniform), producing spores between Jul. and Sep.
Grows on mesic to moist soils, be these moderately fertile or fertile. A species of marked ecological amplitude present in pine and spruce forests, be these mesic, moist, marshy or mixed, and in oak-lime-hornbeam, riparian or alder forest.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski.