Beech family (Fagaceae)
Tree 20-30(40) m tall and with breast-height diameter of 1.8 m. Lifespan 300 years or more. Trunk visible almost to apex. Leaves 5-10(15) cm long, regularly lobed, with wedge-shaped base and leaf stalk up to 2.5 cm long. Leaves develop later than in pedunculate oak. Lateral veins do not usually reach indentations. Monoecious (given tree has flowers of one sex) and wind-pollinated. Female flowers and then acorns in small clusters, sessile or on very short stalks. Nuts (acorns) maturing in Sep.-Oct.
unbanded, ovoid and located in cups. Trees flower in May, as leaves develop.
More warmth-loving than pedunculate, present on poorer soils, e.g. in mixed/coniferous forest, oak woodland and oak-lime-hornbeam forest.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski.