Iris family (Iridaceae)
Perennial with thick rhizome, from which grow flattened stems with sword-shaped leaves in 2 overlapping rows. Leaf size perhaps 1 m x 3 cm. Flower stem cylindrical, usually shorter than leaves, ending in 1-5 golden-yellow flowers. Triangular perianth: external segments (“falls”) large with darker, veined patch, strongly downturned, internal “standards” reduced and oriented upwards. To favour pollination, stigmata of pistil cover 3 expanded stamens like a roof. Flowers May-Jul.
Grows in shallow water or on wet soils, in alder and riparian forest, as well as tall-sedge communities. Also cultivated. Plant simultaneously POISONOUS and with medicinal uses.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski