Nettle family (Urticaceae)
Perennial of heights 30-150 cm with rhizome and stolons, often forming large single-species patches. 4-sided stem plus Leaves covered with stinging hairs containing formic acid and substance similar to histamine. Leaves opposite, stalked. Usually dioecious. Flowers wind-pollinated, in panicles growing out from axils of upper leaves. Flowers Jun.-Dec.
Grows on mesic to moist, fertile to eutrophicated soils, in oak-lime-hornbeam or riparian forest, alder forest, but also ruderal habitats. Tends to grow where nitrogen plentiful. Edible and utilised as fodder, but also to supply fibre and cosmetic ingredients. Nettle chlorophyll is a food colourant (E140). Medicinal plant, therefore.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski.