Body length: 12 cm
Body mass: 12 g
Male: brown upperparts, white belly, grey head with orange-red throat, black-and-white tail (males only take on this plumage when 3+ years old, with younger specimens resembling females)
Female: brown upperparts, beige breast, white belly and black-and-white tail.
Rather uncommon across Poland, though mainly in regions of Pomerania, Podkarpacie, Mazury and Podlasie, as well as the Kampinos Forest. Inhabits old forests of beech and hornbeam, or alder. Nests in half-holes and crevices of split trees, under bark or in forks of branches, usually up to 2 m above ground. Feeds on insects, and sometimes also fruit. Winters in Pakistan and India.
Descriptions drawing on content of Ptaki Polski (“Birds of Poland”) - a book authored by Andrzej G. Kruszewicz, and published by MULTICO Oficyna Wydawnicza Sp. z o.o.