Primrose family (Primulaceae)
Perennial 15-30 cm tall. Leaves form rosette close to ground, merging with leaf-stalk. Leaves are deeply-lined, underside downy. Flower stem leafless ending in umbellule comprising 10-30 scented, golden-yellow flowers. Corona of diameter to 1.5 cm, cylindrical with 5 orange patches on neck, longer than calyx. Latter has sharply-pointed segments, pale green and expanded during flowering, which takes place Mar.-Jun.
Grows on mesic, moderately fertile soils, in broadleaved forest, on meadows and thermophilous grasslands. Often cultivated. Young flowers and leaves edible.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski.