Violet family (Violaceae)
Perennial 10-25 cm tall, with slender stolons and rhizomes. Basal leaves long-stalked, not very hairy, with a blade of more than 2 cm. Cordate-ovate leaf shape, reaching a point, often with margins curled slightly upwards. Stem leaves narrower. Flowers in leaf-axils on stalks up to 10 cm long. Calyx segments narrow and lanceolate in shape. Corolla of length 12-15 mm, violet in colour. Two petals oriented upwards. Spur violet-coloured, 4-6 mm long. Flowers Apr.-Jun.
Grows on mesic fertile or semi-fertile soils, in oak-lime-hornbeam forest, oak woodlands, and mixed/coniferous forest. Variable species that forms hybrids.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski