Fern family (Dryopteridaceae)
Longlived fern with branched rhizome from which grows rosette of leaves of heights reaching as much as 120 cm. Leaf stalk short, densely covered at base by dark brown scales. Lanceolate leaves, 2-pinnate compound. Second-order sections broad-based, with rounded top, and toothed on margins. Sori reniform, producing spores in Jul.-Sep. period.
Grows on mesic and moist soils, be these either fertile or moderately fertile. Occurs mainly in mesic and moist broadleaved forests, e.g. oak-lime-hornbeam and riparian forests, but also mixed oak-pine forest. Rhizomes have medicinal applications. POISONOUS.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski.