Body length: 12-13 cm
Body mass: 13-15 g
Male: green back, yellow breast and rump, black cap, black wings with broad yellow band.
Female: green back and whitish streaked breast, yellow rump, olive-green head, again black wings with yellow band.
Juvenile: like female, though with paler colouration and more heavily streaked.
Nests mainly in NE Poland, or in mountain forests, mostly where spruces present. Found even in parks and gardens when migrating or in winter. Nests elaborate, thick-walled and well-hidden, in crowns of spruces or firs. Has two clutches a year. Feeds on seeds of birch, alder and spruce, but also perennials. Also eats plant buds and insects. Usually forms flocks, which willing visit bird-feeders.
Descriptions drawing on content of Ptaki Polski (“Birds of Poland”) - a book authored by Andrzej G. Kruszewicz, and published by MULTICO Oficyna Wydawnicza Sp. z o.o.