Hazel family (Corylaceae)
Tree reaching 20(29) m in height and girths of 60(120) cm. Lives 100-120 years. Trunk fluted, bark smooth, dark grey in colour. Leaves 10-12 cm long, ovate-elliptical and pointed, base rounded or cordate, with doubly serrated edges, underside hairy on main veins. Monoecious, inflorescences different in each sex, pollination with the aid of the wind. Nuts strongly veined with large 3-lobed wing structure that long persists on the tree in hanging infructescences. Flowers Apr.-May.
Shade-tolerant and of broad ecological amplitude. Creates a lower stand layer in oak-lime-hornbeam forest, while also occurring as an admixture species in other forest communities. Also used in hedging and the generation of bonsai trees.
Descriptions devised by the team at the Independent Department of Forest Botany, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, i.e. L. Witkowska-Żuk, K. Marciszewska, W. Ciurzycki, A. Obidziński and P. Zaniewski